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7 Reasons Why Your PhD Is Causing Stress And Depression

Reasons why your PhD can be causing stress and depression
Written by: Gemma Paech, Ph.D.

It was during the second year of my PhD when I started to realize that things weren’t quite right.

I was working all the time and at all hours of the day.

I was barely sleeping.

I was crying nearly every day.

Somehow, I managed to push on with my PhD work, because I was determined to be a successful academic.

I was driven to write multiple publications, do multiple conference presentations, win awards, and accomplish this all in a timely fashion of three years.

But it seemed that no matter how much work I did, or how hard I tried, it was never good enough for my advisor.

I felt the pressure to do more and more.

I was disappointed in myself for my apparent inability to handle doing a PhD.

Things got worse quicker than they got better.

I had lost the will to continue on.

At my very lowest point, I wanted to die.

Although it took me several months to realize, I was suffering from academic stress.

Eventually, I went to see my doctor, who diagnosed me with anxiety and severe depression and put me on antidepressants.

I’ll never forget the empathetic sigh my doctor gave when I told her of my problems.

It was like she knew all too well how difficult a PhD was on students.

With time, medication, and thoughtful action to help me deal with my stress, anxiety, and depression, I got better.

I thought I was on my way to becoming the successful academic I so desperately wanted to be.

However, as a postdoc I realized that the underlying causes of my depression and anxiety were never going to go away unless I ditched academia forever.

Over the last few years, I have seen similar symptoms in other PhD students, postdocs, and even assistant professors.

It became clear that depression and anxiety were widespread, and not just something I was suffering from.

I was not alone.

Over half of doctoral students meet the clinical criteria for depression

Why PhD Students Are More Likely To Experience Depression Than Other Students

A recent study that looked at over 3,500 PhD students in Belgium found that one in two PhD students experienced psychological distress during their PhD.

More than 30% were at risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, especially depression.

Critically, the prevalence of psychological distress was much higher in PhD students compared to other highly educated individuals and higher education students.

The authors showed that high job demands, low job control, and laissez-faire leadership style (delegative leadership, or “hands-off” leadership), were associated with the risk of experiencing psychological distress.

This study is not the only one to show high risk of depression in PhD students.

The Graduate Student Happiness and Well-Being Report released by the University of California, Berkeley also found that almost 50% of doctoral students met the clinical criteria for depression.

A lack of positive career prospects, space, and resources to succeed, and a general feeling that they were less valued and not included in their departments, contributed to doctoral students experiencing depression and a lower life satisfaction compared to masters’ students.

Academia has unfortunately become a breeding ground for anxiety and depression because of its lack of support for graduate students.

But, all is not lost.

PhDs can and will be supported in industry, where their talent is valued and companies take pride in ensuring their employees are satisfied.

7 Signals That You Are Suffering From Depression And Need To Seek Help

Unfortunately, the causes behind the increased depression and anxiety experienced by PhD students do not end when you defend your thesis.

These problems are prevalent at all levels of academia.

Even if you finished your PhD without experiencing psychological distress, you are still at risk to develop mental health issues as a postdoc, or even as a faculty member, if you are lucky enough to make it that far!

While depression is common among PhD students, early detection is key to helping you complete your PhD and leave academia.

The most important thing is to know the symptoms.

If you find yourself experiencing several of these at once, it may be time to seek advice from your healthcare provider.

A licensed mental health provider, as referred by your family doctor, is the best place to get started.

They will help you get diagnosed and work out appropriate treatment options.

Keep in mind that there are multiple treatment options and it takes time and effort to find the best fit and show improvement, so it’s important to not wait too long to see a mental health professional to help you get started.

Here are 7 symptoms of depression that you must watch for in academia…

Feeling anxious and worrying about everything are signs of depression

1. Constantly feeling sad, anxious, or “empty”.

Do you find yourself feeling sad every day, easily brought to tears, and unable to come out of it?

Maybe you feel anxious about everything, where even the simplest tasks (like getting out of bed) fill you with dread and worry.

You may also feel like you are “emotionless” — numbed out, feeling neither happy nor sad.

While these symptoms may seem contradictory, they can be expressed all at once.

Deep emotional distress, combined with lasting melancholy while you move in and out of a state of feeling flat or numb, are not uncommon.

If these states, and the inability to move out of them and feel happiness and optimism, last for more than a month or get progressively worse, it’s time to talk to an expert.

This is the first indication that your PhD is taking a serious toll on your mental health.

2. Feeling hopeless, guilty, and worthless.

Although at some point, many PhD students and postdocs will be made to feel like they are worthless, if this becomes a regular occurrence, it is time to take note.

This may be combined with a feeling of guilt and worthlessness.

It is important to remember your value as a PhD.

Mistakes are normal.

No one is perfect and research in particular is filled with endless dead-ends and experiments that yield negative results.

It is not your fault.

You have nothing to feel ashamed of.

If your advisor makes you feel like this, it might be worthwhile trying to approach them, a senior mentor, committee member, or ombudsperson, about how their behavior is affecting you.

This is not easy, but it is for your own well-being and confidence to be able to set boundaries and protect yourself from a negative environment.

There are ways to overcome difficult advisors so you can finish your PhD.

Find activities outside of the lab to manage depression

3. A loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities.

While people (a.k.a. your advisor) may tell you that you should only be working on your PhD, know that this is a lie!

One of the first pieces of advice new PhD students need to be reminded of is the need to find something that they enjoy doing outside of the lab and fit this into their daily or weekly routine.

Regardless of how much work there may be on your plate, make time to remove yourself from your research and recharge.

Self-care including a healthy lifestyle of good nutrition, daily exercise, pleasurable hobbies, and social interactions are essential for the protection and maintenance of good mental health.

If you notice that you no longer have an interest in doing your favorite hobbies or activities, this is a sign you may be suffering from depression.

Having other activities outside of your PhD is critical to completing your PhD.

When you no longer take an interest in these activities, it’s a good time to seek help from your mental health professional or doctor.

4. Issues with sleep, irritability, and memory.

Although depression can leave you feeling fatigued and completely drained, it can also disturb your sleep.

While you can struggle to stay awake during the day, the moment you get into bed, you simply cannot fall asleep.

When you do fall asleep, you toss and turn all night, or wake up early in the morning and can’t fall back asleep again.

Disturbed sleep can lead to decreased energy and fatigue, difficulty concentrating, remembering things, and making decisions.

It can also lead to irritability and restlessness.

Poor sleep alone can cause symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Each of these things individually can be an indication of depression — however, sometimes it can be hard to determine the cause.

Lack of sleep can cause a decrease in productivity, which adds more strain when you’re trying to finish a PhD.

Increased irritability is common for PhD students because of the demands placed them, but this also causes a strain on personal relationships, making it even more challenging to get through your PhD.

Importantly, these symptoms can creep up on you slowly, and so may be difficult to detect at first.

For students who have a supportive advisor, let them know what you are going through.

They may give you some time off, or reduce your workload temporarily, which can help you recover.

5. Changes in appetite and weight.

Changes to your appetite — either losing your appetite altogether, or wanting to eat all the time, are also signs of depression.

Even in the absence of changes to eating behaviors, people with depression can experience weight loss or gain.

These symptoms may seem relatively minor compared to some of the other signs of depression, but they are important indicators for diagnosis and treatment.

It is important to make time for meals.

Proper hydration and nutrition are as important as getting enough sleep and rest.

There are probably countless days where you decided to skip lunch or replace a meal with a coffee because you were simply too busy.

Eating and eating well is important to keep your energy levels stable.

Ensuring you drink more water than coffee is also equally important to stabilize your mood and keep you at your best.

6. Self-medicating with drugs or alcohol.

In order to cope with the stress of a PhD, many turn to substances in an attempt to self-medicate.

Not only does this not help the problem, it can make the symptoms worse in the long-run.

While they can temporarily make you feel better, they are not real solutions to the problem.

The additional consequences and risks that come with substance abuse make it a poor coping choice.

When you see your doctor or mental health professional, it is important to be completely honest with them and to mention if you are using drugs and/or alcohol on a regular basis, or at all.

They are not there to judge you but to help you and be empathetic, and knowing all of the substances that you take is important for them to be able to make safe recommendations for your care.

Suicidal thoughts require immediate professional help

7. Suicidal thoughts or attempts.

If you have thought about wanting to die as a way to exit the stress of your life or have thought about ways you could hasten death yourself through suicidal fantasy or attempts, you are in critical need of professional help.

These signs are the most serious, but despite this, many people, especially PhDs, overlook it.

At most, people will mention it in passing, without any realization about how serious it is.

If you have ever thought about killing yourself, have thought about self-harm, or have attempted suicide, you need to see someone as soon as possible.

This applies even if it is just a passing thought.

Call a crisis line or go to the emergency room if you cannot get help immediately from your doctor.

There are also many suicide prevention hotlines that you can call to speak with someone if you feel alone.

At the very least let a family member, or close friend who you trust, know that you have been feeling this way.

The people who love you want to look after you and will do what they can to help you out.

PhDs can be hard to complete, but they do not need to take a toll on your mental health. However, if you do find yourself in the group of PhD students who experience depression and anxiety, know that you are not alone. Know the signs and symptoms to look out for and do not be afraid to ask for help when and if you need it. Once you have a treatment plan in place, you can continue on with your PhD and get out of academia and into a position where you will be valued and where you can thrive.

To learn more about the 7 reasons why your PhD is causing stress and depression, including instant access to our exclusive training videos, case studies, industry insider documents, transition plan, and private online network, get on the wait list for the Cheeky Scientist Association.

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Gemma Paech, Ph.D.

Gemma Paech, Ph.D.

Gemma has a PhD in Social Sciences specializing in sleep and circadian rhythms with a background in genetics and immunology. She is currently transitioning from academia into industry. She has experience in communicating science to lay audiences and believes in sharing scientific knowledge with the public. She is passionate about educating the public about the importance of sleep and the effects of sleep loss and disruption on general health and wellbeing to increase quality of life and work productivity. She is also committed to mentoring students across all demographics, helping them reach their full potential.
Gemma Paech, Ph.D.
  • Chuck

    There are several points in this article that hit home for me, especially #4. I am currently three years into my PhD program, and my experience has overall been a massive disappointment. About a year and a half ago I woke up to debilitating fatigue and brainfog to a degree I had never experienced before. I went to several doctors and eventually took two overnight sleep studies, which confirmed I had obstructive (and central) sleep apnea. I am a thin man (swimmer’s build) which rules out my weight for the cause of my OSA; I believe its arisal has some connection to my current situation, which has been filled with uncertainty, anxiety, and stress. Unfortunately my symptoms still persist today despite trying several treatment methods (cpap, oral appliance, etc.); this brainfog and fatigue have been a significant hindrance towards my degree completion and well-being.

    Have you come across any cases of OSA being caused by anxiety in your research, Dr. Paech? I would be sincerely grateful for any suggestions on how to tackle this.


    • Gemma Paech

      Hi Chuck,

      If you are having problems sleeping, particularly if you have been diagnosed with OSA, this could be having an impact on your mood. Sleep and mood disturbances often go hand-in-hand, and one can exacerbate the other. There are a number of papers that have shown the correlation between OSA and anxiety, but it is often difficult to determine the cause. If you are interested in reading some of these I would suggest a google scholar search of ‘OSA and anxiety’ and that should set you in the right direction.

      As for your continued fatigue (and anxiety), there are things that can be done to help you. I suggest you chat to your doctor about options that may be appropriate for you. Rest assured (no pun intended) there are other treatment options for OSA and there are options to treat your daytime fatigue.

      Once you can get your sleep sorted this will likely help your daytime functioning (there is a lot of research done on sleep loss and poor daytime functioning) and will help you get your PhD done and dusted.

      Hopefully this answers your query and helps you a little bit. PhDs can be hard enough without having sleep problems, but it can be done, I am proof of that!


  • Yeungwai

    Have all the signs except self medicating. It doesn’t help when your advisor is a narcissist with bipolar tendencies. At the lowest point I was crying for 3 days straight while working in the lab. Throughout the duration of my PhD I felt like a trapped animal waiting to be whipped by my advisor. The anxiety is real, the isolation you feel could be unbearable. I have to create an account here to post anonymously for fear of the repurcussion. My advisor was a very vindictive guy with only his career advancement and not the training of future scientists as his motivation. I will never wish this fate upon my worst enemies.

  • shad

    I almost have all the symptoms and the wost one is the guilty feeling, I always think what if my results are not true or what if the next person can not reproduce it and this feeling wake me up 5 am everyday with sweating and feeling unbelievably bad and scared .

  • Nauras

    The problem is I can’t even cry even if I want … How would that help. This is the tax you must pay if you insist to follow your dreams.

  • Allen Hax

    My final take on this is that depression and anxiety are just ordinary emotions, like happiness or love, and that your emotions can be managed by you, and your emotions should be managed by you and you only.

    If you don’t like some emotion you have, then you can manage it yourself:
    1. find an e-learning on the subject you need, so that the e-learning teaches you to do what you need effectively
    2. delegate the task to someone who is an expert and does it for your effectively
    3. instead of the task, watch problem solving videos on youtube to beef up your problem solving skills, as they are not sharp enough if a task is hard and gives you anxiety and depression
    4. also beef up decision making and leadership skills to lead yourself, strongly, without expecting somebody else to hold your hand and lead you
    5. take the best possible course on strategic thinking to know what to work on to get the result, and what to avoid (not to work on).

    Think of the above skills as the skills you need to develop, and your PhD as a mere exercise which gives you the opportunity to develop those skills.

    In social sciences, it is a piece of cake to get a PhD. What would you do if you needed to get a PhD in something, that has to be very mathematical, and you have to innovate it, and before you can turn it in it has to validate, all numbers correct. And to build it, you’d have to study a hundred theories, implement them into practical instantiations, connect all together, and you cannot make a mistake anywhere or it won’t work, and that’s a PhD I’ve been doing. But with the 5 tips I give above, it isn’t so bad, it’s doable, and given enough time I’ll finish the work.

    I’ve been doing my PhD the 5th year now and doctors are technicians. But, when doctors are crooked, they are crooked technicians. A crooked person is one using rhetoric to construct false irrefutable justifications for his or her actions.

    So, those things the author took orally are not as much medication, as they are toxic poisonous concoctions. Doctors of medicine are not as much technicians as they are crooked technicians.

    Doctors of medicine have an agenda of “shutting down” people they hate. When they have some behavior, they put it in their great book of fiction, then catch everything that’s vaguely corresponding with that behavior they hate, and finally they administer doses of toxic poisonous concoctions to shut down neurons in the brain, let them die, and turn a normal, young, intelligent person into a retard who can’t do anything, due to brain damage. The only thing they do is they shut down people permanently for one behavior in a million of behaviors the person has. If you study, think about it. Doctors of medicine are only technicians. When they are crooked technicians, they are rhetorical and construct false irrefutable arguments to put forward any agenda they have. Every day, crooked doctors harm with deliberation, lie with deliberation, and destroy lives permanently with deliberation.

    Good luck marketing that religious blief in toxic poisonous concoction that you use to rule people who are rhetoricially illiterate! For those who know, a person who pretends to have knowledge they don’t posses is a rhetorician, and that person is lying, and those lies are harm. So, when Hippocrates is a different term for Hypocrite, you can laugh about it, then torture and poison some babies, children, adults, and elders with no guilt, no conscience, and no responsibility for your crimes.

    Rhetoric (constructing irrefutable false arguments) is how the government (and every ruler) rules the people because to an irrefutable argument people can’t answer with anything that will refute the argument. People can only answer with another irrefutable argument, and that’s mine. They are all rhetoricians, never intending to serve you, but always intending you to serve them and further their agendas because they are the rhetoricians and you are not. They know how to BS you with irrefutable fake constructed arguments and you don’t know how to craft those in your defense, unless you are a doctor of medicine or doctor of law.

    Very rarely, PhD (doctor of philosophy) has any actual skill in rhetoric. Let’s say the doctoral education they have (doctors and lawyers have) is an education in how to use rhetoric, and that these corrupt technicians (lawyers and doctors) do not do their technical duties carefully, properly, but they do them with disdain and as menial tasks. What they truly love doing is defrauding people via rhetorics and making people pay for it.

    A good rhetorician vs a bad rhetorician. The good one makes you agree with everything she/he says, and acts like a good actor, so you would never suspect, and you would argue they are telling the truth.

    And one more thing. Rhetorics is what preachers preach in the churches, and people religiously believe it. Same irrefutable constructed fake arguments are preached by doctors of medicine and doctors of law, and others, incl. the politicians, etc. to persuade masses, just by the fact that masses can’t really tell anything back to an irrefutable argument, except saying “I don’t want to” and the government doesn’t care if you want to have them or not.